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Cooling the Coosa

Massive Water Withdrawal and Warm Water Discharge from Power Plant Harms Coosa Fish

CRBI's Campaign to Stop Fish Deaths at Plant Hammond on the Coosa River

In January 2015, CRBI launched a campaign with the Sierra Club and GreenLaw to urge Georgia Power Co. and Georgia's Environmental Protection Division (EPD) to convert Georgia Power's Plant Hammond to a closed-cooling system, a change that would prevent the death of thousands of fish and eliminate the plant's hot water discharge to the river. Unfortunately, change has been slow in coming. 
After a five-year delay, in February 2017, EPD finally took action to update Plant Hammond's pollution control permit. Unfortunately, the permit does nothing to address the thermal pollution caused by the plant or the massive water withdrawal required by the plant's "once-through-cooling" system that kills thousands of fish each year. 
EPD is accepting public comments on the proposed pollution control permit for Plant Hammond through April 14, 2017. Scroll down and learn more about this issue and how you can contact EPD and urge them to protect the Coosa. 

Plant Hammond Public Hearing On Apr. 12; Wear Black to Show Your Love for the Coosa

Georgia's Environmental Protection Division will hold a public hearing April 12 at the Rome-Floyd ECO River Education Center beginning at 7 p.m. Citizens can submit oral and written comments at this hearing. CRBI encourages its members and supporters to wear black (the color of coal) as a symbol of your support for a cleaner, healthier Coosa River. 

Send EPD a Letter Asking for A Clean Coosa!

Georgia's Environmental Protection Division is accepting comments on the agency's update of Plant Hammond's pollution control permit through April 14. You can e-mail EPD Director Richard Dunn with your thoughts at Use the following sample letter or draft your own.
Dear Director Dunn:
As a resident of the Coosa River watershed, I urge you to improve the proposed National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System permit for Georgia Power Co.'s Plant Hammond.
Any permit issued should recognize new federal regulations and include limits for toxic discharges, including those discharges to the Coosa River associated with the closure of Plant Hammond's coal ash ponds. Furthermore, the permit should place limits on the amount of hot water that the facility discharges to the Coosa River.
As you know, according to Georgia Power Co.'s own study, the facility may cause the death of between 30,000 and 60,000 fish annually because of the plant's massive water withdrawal. Installing cooling towers at the plant would eliminate these deaths and the corresponding hot water discharge.
Such changes are currently required by federal law. Please enforce these laws and help restore the Coosa and its fishery for this and future generations.
Coosa River Lover

What’s The Problem with Power Plants?

Plant Hammond

The single largest user of water in the upper Coosa River basin is Plant Hammond, a coal-fired power generating facility located in Floyd County just west of Rome (pictured to the left). At peak operating capacity the plant uses more than 530 million gallons a day (as much as all of metro Atlanta uses daily) from the Coosa as cooling water. Once used at the plant, the water is discharged back to the Coosa at an elevated temperature.

This massive water withdrawal from the river and subsequent warm water discharge has taken place at Plant Hammond for more than 50 years and has had far-reaching impacts on the health of the Coosa. Thousands of fish, fish larvae and fish eggs perish annually when they are sucked into the plant’s intake pipes. Countless other fish and aquatic wildlife are impacted by the thermal discharge. Scroll down to see a google map of Plant Hammond. 

 Fixing the Problem

EPA Logo

The good news is federal and state environmental agencies are taking steps to correct the problem.

In May 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency adopted new  protections that require power plants like Hammond to reduce the amount of water they pump from our rivers. Additionally, Georgia’s Environmental Protection Division (EPD) which regulates pollution coming from Plant Hammond and will review Hammond’s pollution permits in 2015, now says that new cooling technology must be installed at the plant to restore the health of the Coosa.


Fish Impingment: Thousands of Fish Perish at Water Intake 


A study conducted by Georgia Power during 2004-2005 showed that as many as 30,000-60,000 fish (like the Mobile logperch pictured at left) are sucked into Plant Hammond’s water intake annually. A large number of these fish ultimately die. The number of fish that perish at Plant Hammond annually through impingement likely exceeds the largest single fish kill in Georgia history—a loss of 38,000 fish on the Ogeechee River in 2011. And, these losses on the Coosa have occurred every year for more than 50 years. 

The species of fish killed at the intake pipes include the river's top sport fish--striped bass--and that fish's most important food source--shad. Lake sturgeon, the focus of a intensive restoration program by Georgia's Department of Natural Resources, are also lost as a result of the massive water withdrawal. Read the full Report on Georgia Power’s Fish Impingement Study. 

View charts and additional documents associated with Fish Impingement Study. 

Fish Entrainment: Millions of Fish Eggs Sucked into Plant Hammond's Pipes 


In addition to adult fish being sucked into Plant Hammond’s intake pipes and being impinged against intake screens, fish eggs and larval fish can also be taken into the pipes and slip through these screens. Once through the screens and into Plant Hammond’s cooling water system, these eggs and larval fish are subjected to the high temperatures of the plant. It is likely that most of these fish perish.

Though no studies have been conducted to determine how many fish eggs and larvae die as the result of entrainment, studies on the striped bass (pictured above) spawn on the Coosa River system show that during the peak of the spawning season in late April and early May as many as 24 million eggs or larvae may get sucked into the plant. Review a Powerpoint presentation detailing the striped bass spawn on the Coosa.

Thermal Pollution: Discharge from Plant Hammond reduces oxygen, threatens fish

Hammond Vertical

Water discharged to the Coosa at Plant Hammond increases the temperature of the river and reduces oxygen levels that are important to the survival of fish and other aquatic species. Thermal pollution has also been shown to impact reproductive success in fish, disrupt the stability of the aquatic food chain and cause a decline in biodiversity.

The problem was identified as early as 1990 after a fish kill on the Coosa attributed to the plant's discharge. In a 2004 pollution control plan for the Coosa, EPD required Georgia Power to install a cooling tower at the facility. However, objections from Georgia Power over the validity of monitoring data prompted EPD to conduct additional studies. Ten years later, we are still waiting for the conclusion of these studies and associated river modeling. 

Read the full 2004 Coosa River Dissolved Oxygen Total Maximum Daily Load Report 


What's the Fix?

Cooling Towers

Good news! This pollution problem can be eliminated.  The once-through cooling system at Plant Hammond is obsolete. It is one of only two remaining Georgia Power facilities in the state that still uses this outdated technology.

Other power plants, like Plant Bowen on the Etowah River in Euharlee (pictured at left), utilize cooling towers that recycle water, dramatically reducing the water that must be pumped from the river. 

Georgia Power estimates that construction of a cooling tower at Plant Hammond would reduce the daily withdrawal to about 30 MGD, from about 530 MGD. A cooling tower would also significantly reduce the thermal pollution at the plant’s discharge pipe.

In response to concerns about the health of the Chattahoochee River in Atlanta, in 2000 Georgia Power began making similar changes to its Plant McDonough. That conversion helped improve the health of the Chattahoochee by eliminating a daily 344 million gallon withdrawal and discharge. Today, the plant withdraws about 20 MGD. Read an article about this success story in Chattahoochee Riverkeeper's newsletter. 

 What’s the Cost?


Georgia Power estimates that construction of a cooling tower at Plant Hammond would cost about $165 million. With 2.4 million customers statewide, such an investment would cost each customer about $69. Spread out over a 25-year period that amounts to about 25 cents per customer per billing cycle—a small price to pay for the restoration of a river that’s had its fish populations decimated by Plant Hammond for more than 50 years.


Google Map of Plant Hammond Facility


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